Prepared by : Mario Carl Joseph
World Health Organization (WHO) defines female genital mutilation (FGM) refer to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The effects of female genital mutilation on girls/women’s mental health : (1) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and affective disorders, (2) Sexual dysfunction, (3) Felt a sense of having “something missing” or taken without their consent, (4) Sense of betrayal by their families and communities. Reactions to repeated trauma can also manifest widely in domains of attachment relationships, affect regulation, dissociation, cognitive distortion, behavioral regulation, and self-concept (Cook et al., 2017)
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