Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

#femalegenitalmutilation #mentalhealth
Prepared by : Mario Carl Joseph

World Health Organization (WHO) defines female genital mutilation (FGM) refer to all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The effects of female genital mutilation on girls/women’s mental health : (1) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and affective disorders, (2) Sexual dysfunction, (3) Felt a sense of having “something missing” or taken without their consent, (4) Sense of betrayal by their families and communities. Reactions to repeated trauma can also manifest widely in domains of attachment relationships, affect regulation, dissociation, cognitive distortion, behavioral regulation, and self-concept (Cook et al., 2017)

References :
Ahmed, M. R., Shaaban, M. M., Meky, H. K., Amin Arafa, M. E., Mohamed, T. Y., Gharib, W. F., & Ahmed, A. B. (2017). Psychological impact of female genital mutilation among adolescent Egyptian girls: a cross-sectional study. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 22(4), 280-285.

AL‐KRENAWI, A. L. E. A. N., & WIESEL‐LEV, R. A. C. H. E. L. (1999). Attitudes toward and perceived psychosocial impact of female circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin‐Arabs of the Negev. Family Process, 38(4), 431-443.

Berg, R. C., & Denison, E. (2012). Does female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) affect women’s sexual functioning? A systematic review of the sexual consequences of FGM/C. Sexuality research and social policy, 9(1), 41-56.

Cook, A., Spinazzola, J., Ford, J., Lanktree, C., Blaustein, M., Cloitre, M., & Mallah, K. (2017). Complex trauma in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Annals, 35, 390–398.

Isman, E., Ekéus,C., & Berggren,V. (2013). Perceptions and experiences of female genital mutilation after immigration to Sweden: An explorative study. Sexual &Reproductive Healthcare, 4, 93–98.

Kahn, S. (2016). “You see, one day they cut”: The evolution, expression, and consequences of resistance for women who oppose female genital cutting. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 26(7-8), 622-635.

Mulongo, P., Hollins Martin, C., & McAndrew, S. (2014). The psychological impact of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) on girls/women’s mental health: a narrative literature review. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 32(5), 469-485.

Rouzi, A. A., Berg, R. C., Sahly, N., Alkafy, S., Alzaban, F., & Abduljabbar, H. (2017). Effects of female genital mutilation/cutting on the sexual function of Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 217(1), 62-e1.

Vloeberghs, E., Van der Kwaak, A., Knipscheer, J., & van den Muijsenbergh, M. (2012). Coping and chronic psychosocial consequences of female genital mutilation in the Netherlands. Ethnicity & health, 17(6), 677-695.

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